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COURSE_ASSIGNMENT_TITLE >> 18. Lee la sección “Aclaración de Palabras por Lectura en Voz Alta”.

ACLARACIÓN DE PALABRAS POR LECTURA EN VOZ ALTA

Un método de encontrar las palabras que una persona no comprende en un libro u otro material escrito, que es efectivo en extremo, se llama Aclaración de Palabras por Lectura en Voz Alta.

Cuando un estudiante lee solo, a menudo no se da cuenta de que ha pasado palabras malentendidas. Pero cada vez que pasa por alto palabras malentendidas tendrá problemas con los datos que está leyendo.

En la Aclaración de Palabras por Lectura en Voz Alta, se hace que la persona lea el material en voz alta. La persona a la que le lee le ayuda a encontrar y aclarar cualquier palabra malentendida y se llama, con toda propiedad, aclarador de palabras.

La Aclaración de Palabras por Lectura en Voz Alta se hace normalmente entre dos personas que se van turnando: uno de los estudiantes es el aclarador de palabras y aclara las palabras al otro estudiante, y entonces se intercambian y el estudiante que acaba de recibir aclaración de palabras se convierte en el aclarador de palabras y aclara las palabras a su compañero.

Una palabra se puede malentender de muchas formas diferentes. Es importante que la persona que hace la Aclaración de Palabras por Lectura en Voz Alta conozca estos tipos diferentes de palabras malentendidas. Una palabra puede estar malentendida a causa de:

1. Una definición falsa (totalmente equivocada): La persona lee o escucha la palabra “gato” y piensa que “gato” significa “caja”. No se puede estar más equivocado.

2. Una definición inventada: Cuando la persona era un niño, sus amigos siempre le llamaban “niña” cuando no quería hacer nada arriesgado. Inventa que la definición de “niña” es “persona cobarde”.

3. Una definición incorrecta: Una persona lee o escucha la palabra “computadora” y piensa que es una “máquina de escribir”. Este es un significado incorrecto de “computadora”, aunque tanto una máquina de escribir como una computadora son tipos de máquinas.

4. Una definición incompleta: La persona lee la palabra “oficina” y piensa que significa “habitación”. La definición de la palabra “oficina” es “el edificio, habitación o serie de habitaciones en las que se llevan a cabo los asuntos de un negocio, de un profesional, de una rama del gobierno, etc.”. La definición de “oficina” que tiene la persona, es incompleta.

5. Una definición inadecuada: La persona ve un guión (-) en la frase “Hoy acabé los números 3-7”. Piensa que el guión es un signo menos, se da cuenta que no puede restar 7 de 3 y entonces no puede entenderlo.

6. Una definición homónima (un sonido o símbolo que tiene dos o más significados claramente diferentes): La persona oye la palabra “punto” en la oración: “Fue un punto confuso en la historia”. Y sabiendo que “punto” es lo que viene al final de una oración y significa un paro, supone que el mundo se acabó en ese momento.

7. Una definición sustitutiva (sinónima): La persona lee la palabra “corpulento” y piensa que la definición de la palabra es “gordo”. “Gordo” es un sinónimo de la palabra “corpulento”. La persona tiene un malentendido porque la palabra “corpulento” significa “que tiene mucho cuerpo”.

8. Una definición omitida (faltante): La persona oye la oración “La comida aquí es muy, muy rica”. Esta persona conoce dos definiciones de la palabra “rico”. Sabe que “rico” significa que “tiene mucho dinero, tierras, bienes, etc.” y “persona adinerada”. Ninguna de estas definiciones tiene demasiado sentido para ella en la oración que acaba de escuchar. No puede entender cómo la comida puede tener algo que ver con tener mucho dinero. No sabe que “rico” en este sentido significa: “gustoso, sabroso, agradable”.

9. Una no-definición: Una no-definición es una palabra o símbolo “no comprendido”. La persona lee la oración: “Los negocios no produjeron lucro”. No se produce ninguna comprensión, ya que no sabe ninguna definición de “lucro”. La palabra significa “riquezas; dinero: principalmente una palabra despectiva, como en lucro indecente”.

10. Una definición rechazada: La persona se niega a buscar la definición de asterisco (*). Al hablar sobre ello se encuentra que cada vez que ve un asterisco en la página sabe que el material será “muy difícil de leer” y que es “literario”, “difícil” y “muy intelectual”.

Si una persona habitualmente ha pasado muchas, muchas palabras malentendidas en su lectura o en su educación (lo que ha hecho casi todo el mundo en la cultura actual), no sólo habrá disminuido su capacidad para leer, sino también su inteligencia. Lo que ella misma escriba y diga no se comprenderá, ella no comprenderá lo que lea y escuche, y estará sin comunicación. Lo más probable es que el mundo le parezca un sitio muy extraño, se sentirá “incomprendida” (¡por supuesto!) y la vida le parecerá un poco miserable. Incluso ante los demás, ella puede parecer criminal. Como mínimo se convertirá en una especie de robot o de “zombi”: en una persona carente de voluntad. Así que ya ves, es muy importante aclarar las palabras malentendidas.

Una persona que ayuda a otra persona a encontrar y aclarar cualquier palabra mal entendida.